R&D expenditure in percentage of GDP (2009)

Definition. The total gross domestic expenditure on research and development comprises: business enterprise expenditure on R&D, higher education expenditure on R&D, government expenditure on R&D and private non-profit sector expenditure on R&D. Investing 3% of GDP is therefore one of the headline targets in the new Europe 2020 strategy for developing an economy based on knowledge and innovation (EUROSTAT 2010).

Key facts at European level. R&D expenditure on GDP seems to generally differ within Europe. A higher share affects the Nordic countries (especially Finland) and the ‘pentagon’ area (London-Hamburg-Munich-Milano-Paris). No Southern or (South-)Eastern (EU12) European region spends more than 3% of GDP for R&D. Especially Bulgaria and Romania are shaped by R&D expenditure rates below 0.50%. The share generally decreases from northern to southern regions. Still, sub-national differences predominantly occur, depending on local and regional specializations, governance, public or private participation to R&D etc. In southern France and southern UK for example, the share in neighbouring regions varies from 0.51 to more than 3%.


Other regions with selected indicator available

Austria

  • AT11 Burgenland (AT)
  • AT12 Niederösterreich
  • AT13 Wien
  • AT21 Kärnten
  • AT22 Steiermark
  • AT31 Oberösterreich
  • AT32 Salzburg
  • AT33 Tirol
  • AT34 Vorarlberg

Belgium

  • BE10 Région de Bruxelles-Capitale/Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest
  • BE21 Prov. Antwerpen
  • BE22 Prov. Limburg (BE)
  • BE23 Prov. Oost-Vlaanderen
  • BE24 Prov. Vlaams-Brabant
  • BE25 Prov. West-Vlaanderen
  • BE31 Prov. Brabant Wallon
  • BE32 Prov. Hainaut
  • BE33 Prov. Liège
  • BE34 Prov. Luxembourg (BE)
  • BE35 Prov. Namur

Bulgaria

  • BG31 Северозападен (Severozapaden)
  • BG32 Северен централен (Severen tsentralen)
  • BG33 Североизточен (Severoiztochen)
  • BG34 Югоизточен (Yugoiztochen)
  • BG41 Югозападен (Yugozapaden)
  • BG42 Южен централен (Yuzhen tsentralen)

Croatia

  • HR03 Jadranska Hrvatska
  • HR04 Kontinentalna Hrvatska

Cyprus

  • CY00 Κύπρος (Kýpros)

Czech Republic

  • CZ01 Praha
  • CZ02 Střední Čechy
  • CZ03 Jihozápad
  • CZ04 Severozápad
  • CZ05 Severovýchod
  • CZ06 Jihovýchod
  • CZ07 Střední Morava
  • CZ08 Moravskoslezsko

Denmark

  • DK01 Hovedstaden
  • DK02 Sjælland
  • DK03 Syddanmark
  • DK04 Midtjylland
  • DK05 Nordjylland

Estonia

  • EE00 Eesti

Finland

  • FI19 Länsi-Suomi
  • FI1B Helsinki-Uusimaa
  • FI1C Etelä-Suomi
  • FI1D Pohjois- ja Itä-Suomi
  • FI20 Åland

France

  • FR10 Île de France
  • FR21 Champagne-Ardenne
  • FR22 Picardie
  • FR23 Haute-Normandie
  • FR24 Centre
  • FR25 Basse-Normandie
  • FR26 Bourgogne
  • FR30 Nord - Pas-de-Calais
  • FR41 Lorraine
  • FR42 Alsace
  • FR43 Franche-Comté
  • FR51 Pays de la Loire
  • FR52 Bretagne
  • FR53 Poitou-Charentes
  • FR61 Aquitaine
  • FR62 Midi-Pyrénées
  • FR63 Limousin
  • FR71 Rhône-Alpes
  • FR72 Auvergne
  • FR81 Languedoc-Roussillon
  • FR82 Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
  • FR83 Corse
  • FR91 Guadeloupe

Germany

  • DE11 Stuttgart
  • DE12 Karlsruhe
  • DE13 Freiburg
  • DE14 Tübingen
  • DE21 Oberbayern
  • DE24 Oberfranken
  • DE25 Mittelfranken
  • DE26 Unterfranken
  • DE27 Schwaben
  • DE30 Berlin
  • DE40 Brandenburg
  • DE50 Bremen
  • DE60 Hamburg
  • DE71 Darmstadt
  • DE72 Gießen
  • DE73 Kassel
  • DE80 Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
  • DE91 Braunschweig
  • DE92 Hannover
  • DE93 Lüneburg
  • DE94 Weser-Ems
  • DEA1 Düsseldorf
  • DEA2 Köln
  • DEA3 Münster
  • DEA4 Detmold
  • DEA5 Arnsberg
  • DEB1 Koblenz
  • DEB2 Trier
  • DEB3 Rheinhessen-Pfalz
  • DEC0 Saarland
  • DED2 Dresden
  • DED4 Chemnitz
  • DED5 Leipzig
  • DEE0 Sachsen-Anhalt
  • DEF0 Schleswig-Holstein
  • DEG0 Thüringen

Greece

  • EL11 Aνατολική Μακεδονία, Θράκη (Anatoliki Makedonia, Thraki)
  • EL12 Κεντρική Μακεδονία (Kentriki Makedonia)
  • EL13 Δυτική Μακεδονία (Dytiki Makedonia)
  • EL14 Θεσσαλία (Thessalia)
  • EL21 Ήπειρος (Ipeiros)
  • EL22 Ιόνια Νησιά (Ionia Nisia)
  • EL23 Δυτική Ελλάδα (Dytiki Ellada)
  • EL24 Στερεά Ελλάδα (Sterea Ellada)
  • EL25 Πελοπόννησος (Peloponnisos)
  • EL30 Aττική (Attiki)
  • EL41 Βόρειο Αιγαίο (Voreio Aigaio)
  • EL42 Νότιο Αιγαίο (Notio Aigaio)
  • EL43 Κρήτη (Kriti)

Hungary

  • HU10 Közép-Magyarország
  • HU21 Közép-Dunántúl
  • HU22 Nyugat-Dunántúl
  • HU23 Dél-Dunántúl
  • HU31 Észak-Magyarország
  • HU32 Észak-Alföld
  • HU33 Dél-Alföld

Ireland

  • IE01 Border, Midland and Western
  • IE02 Southern and Eastern

Italy

  • ITC1 Piemonte
  • ITC2 Valle d'Aosta/Vallée d'Aoste
  • ITC3 Liguria
  • ITC4 Lombardia
  • ITE1 Toscana
  • ITE2 Umbria
  • ITE3 Marche
  • ITE4 Lazio
  • ITF1 Abruzzo
  • ITF2 Molise
  • ITF3 Campania
  • ITF4 Puglia
  • ITF5 Basilicata
  • ITF6 Calabria
  • ITG1 Sicilia
  • ITG2 Sardegna
  • ITH1 Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano/Bozen
  • ITH2 Provincia Autonoma di Trento
  • ITH3 Veneto
  • ITH4 Friuli-Venezia Giulia
  • ITH5 Emilia-Romagna

Latvia

  • LV00 Latvija

Lithuania

  • LT00 Lietuva

Luxembourg

  • LU00 Luxembourg

Malta

  • MT00 Malta

Netherlands

  • NL11 Groningen
  • NL12 Friesland (NL)
  • NL13 Drenthe
  • NL21 Overijssel
  • NL22 Gelderland
  • NL23 Flevoland
  • NL31 Utrecht
  • NL32 Noord-Holland
  • NL33 Zuid-Holland
  • NL34 Zeeland
  • NL41 Noord-Brabant
  • NL42 Limburg (NL)

Poland

  • PL11 Łódzkie
  • PL12 Mazowieckie
  • PL21 Małopolskie
  • PL22 Śląskie
  • PL31 Lubelskie
  • PL32 Podkarpackie
  • PL33 Świętokrzyskie
  • PL34 Podlaskie
  • PL41 Wielkopolskie
  • PL42 Zachodniopomorskie
  • PL43 Lubuskie
  • PL51 Dolnośląskie
  • PL52 Opolskie
  • PL61 Kujawsko-Pomorskie
  • PL62 Warmińsko-Mazurskie
  • PL63 Pomorskie

Portugal

  • PT11 Norte
  • PT15 Algarve
  • PT16 Centro (PT)
  • PT17 Lisboa
  • PT18 Alentejo
  • PT20 Região Autónoma dos Açores
  • PT30 Região Autónoma da Madeira

Romania

  • RO11 Nord-Vest
  • RO12 Centru
  • RO21 Nord-Est
  • RO22 Sud-Est
  • RO31 Sud - Muntenia
  • RO32 Bucureşti - Ilfov
  • RO41 Sud-Vest Oltenia
  • RO42 Vest

Slovenia

  • SI01 Vzhodna Slovenija
  • SI02 Zahodna Slovenija

Slovakia

  • SK01 Bratislavský kraj
  • SK02 Západné Slovensko
  • SK03 Stredné Slovensko
  • SK04 Východné Slovensko

Spain

  • ES11 Galicia
  • ES12 Principado de Asturias
  • ES13 Cantabria
  • ES21 País Vasco
  • ES22 Comunidad Foral de Navarra
  • ES23 La Rioja
  • ES24 Aragón
  • ES30 Comunidad de Madrid
  • ES41 Castilla y León
  • ES42 Castilla-La Mancha
  • ES43 Extremadura
  • ES51 Cataluña
  • ES52 Comunidad Valenciana
  • ES53 Illes Balears
  • ES61 Andalucía
  • ES62 Región de Murcia
  • ES63 Ciudad Autónoma de Ceuta
  • ES64 Ciudad Autónoma de Melilla
  • ES70 Canarias

Sweden

  • SE11 Stockholm
  • SE12 Östra Mellansverige
  • SE21 Småland med öarna
  • SE22 Sydsverige
  • SE23 Västsverige
  • SE31 Norra Mellansverige
  • SE32 Mellersta Norrland
  • SE33 Övre Norrland

United Kingdom

  • UKC1 Tees Valley and Durham
  • UKC2 Northumberland and Tyne and Wear
  • UKD1 Cumbria
  • UKD3 Greater Manchester
  • UKD4 Lancashire
  • UKD6 Cheshire
  • UKD7 Merseyside
  • UKE1 East Yorkshire and Northern Lincolnshire
  • UKE2 North Yorkshire
  • UKE3 South Yorkshire
  • UKE4 West Yorkshire
  • UKF1 Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire
  • UKF2 Leicestershire, Rutland and Northamptonshire
  • UKF3 Lincolnshire
  • UKG1 Herefordshire, Worcestershire and Warwickshire
  • UKG2 Shropshire and Staffordshire
  • UKG3 West Midlands
  • UKH1 East Anglia
  • UKH2 Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire
  • UKH3 Essex
  • UKI1 Inner London
  • UKI2 Outer London
  • UKJ1 Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire
  • UKJ2 Surrey, East and West Sussex
  • UKJ3 Hampshire and Isle of Wight
  • UKJ4 Kent
  • UKK1 Gloucestershire, Wiltshire and Bristol/Bath area
  • UKK2 Dorset and Somerset
  • UKK3 Cornwall and Isles of Scilly
  • UKK4 Devon
  • UKL1 West Wales and The Valleys
  • UKL2 East Wales
  • UKM2 Eastern Scotland
  • UKM3 South Western Scotland
  • UKM5 North Eastern Scotland
  • UKM6 Highlands and Islands
  • UKN0 Northern Ireland